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On 04/10/2005 Software Scientific's Concept Engine TM read 1,000 documents and considered 60,605 links

Research based on What is the evidence for climate change?

Answers | Relevant Documents

Answers

AnswerX-Ref
The evidence for climate change The evidence for climate change
Evidence for Climate Change Evidence for Climate Change
Anecdotal Evidence of Climate Change UBC Botanical Garden Weblog: Climate Change
In Changes of Climate.Bibliography: Discovery of Global Warming
Anecdotal Evidence of Climate Change UBC Botanical Garden Weblog: Anecdotal Evidence of Climate Change
What is climate change? Puget Sound Clean Air Agency - Global climate change
Current Evidence of Climate Change Current Evidence of Climate Change
Martian climate change Slashdot | Mars Orbiter Sees Changes
Climate-change Theory? * Exploring the Science of Climate Change
Climate Change: The Evidence Mounts Up Climate Change: The Evidence Mounts Up
Causes of Climate ChangeGlobal Climate Change Student Guide
Causes of Climate Change Causes of Climate Change
Climate change - Evidence Climate change - Evidence
Climate Change: The Past Climate Change: The Past
Climate Change: The Evidence Mounts UpUSGCRP Site Map
Current evidence of climate changeFeeling the Heat
Climate Change Science Vital Climate Graphics Africa, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Climate change is with us.New Scientist Special Report on Climate Change
Impacts of Climate Change Human Contribution to Climate Change Remains Questionable
Science of Climate Change Climate.org - Science of Climate Change
Betting on climate change RealClimate » Climate Science
Betting on Climate ChangeRealClimate » 11C warming, climate crisis in 10 years? 11C de rchauffement, une crise climatique dans 10 ans ?
Realism on Climate Change - Prometheus: Author: Pielke Jr., R. Archives
The UK and Climate Change U.S. Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources
Climate Change - The Book GreenHouse Gas Online - Greenhouse Gas News, Research and Resources
The theory & evidence of climate changeBritish Energy - The theory & evidence of climate change
The theory & evidence of climate changeBritish Energy - Climate change
Climate Change: The Scientific Evidence isen.blog
Climate Change Specialist.What's New, US Global Change Research Program
Changing regional climate alt.global-warming FAQ - Frequently Asked Questions
PM speech on climate change PM speech on climate change
Climate Change Forcings (8)Climate Science » Additional Evidence as to Why Land-Use/Land-Cover Change is a First-Order Climate Forcing
Climate Change Introduction Climate Change Introduction
Anthropogenic Climate Change Anthropogenic Climate Change
Politics of Climate Change Open Source » Blog Archive » Politics of Climate Change
Home > Evidence of Abrupt Climate Change Abrubt Climate Change
Home > Evidence of Abrupt Climate Change Abrubt Climate Change
How will the climate change? CLIMATE CHANGE INFORMATION KIT
"Is the Climate Changing?Library: Miscellaneous Online Documents
The Science of Climate Change Worldwatch Institute: Questions and Answers about Global Warming, Abrupt Climate Change, and The Day After Tomorrow
Climate Change Already Here Climate Change Already Here By AFP
Introduction to Climate Change Introduction to Climate Change
IB89005: Global Climate Change CRS Report: IB89005 - Global Climate Change - NLE
Climate Change Information Kit Climate change: UNEP.Net, the Environment Network
Smoking guns of climate change Global Warming
Climate Change Greenpeace Emissions
CLIMATE change education. Global Warming Science Education, Climate Change Science Education, Solutions
Climate Change Central | Home Climate Change Central | Home
No 27: Climate Changes Bellona: Climate changes
Climate change conferences Climate Change

Relevant Documents

These documents are arranged in order of relevance to your query. See also Answers | Relevant Documents

DocumentSummary
Exploring the Science of Climate Change
96% (1)
http: //www. rppi. org/ environment/ peg3. html
23/5/2002

Exploring the Science of Climate Change

i This guide translates the major lines of evidence regarding global climate change from the arcane language of science into the mainstream language of English, so that the weighing of evidence can be put back into a public debate that too often weighs only the sound bites of pundits, politicians, industry representatives, & celebrity scientists.   i i This evidence, while interesting as a potential "reality check" for global human-caused climate change models, is considered far less reliable than direct observational data.   These limitations in evidence make it difficult to draw hard & fast conclusions regarding what changes have actually occurred recently in comparison to past climate conditions.i Nevertheless, we do have evidence at hand regarding recent changes in both atmospheric composition & global climate trends that suggest that humanity has at least changed the Earth’s atmospheric composition in regard to greenhouse gases & other pollutants.i A quick review of the climate changes suggested by the available evidence follows.   i Some people interpret the observed changes of temperature as evidence to support the theory that human action has caused changes in the global climate. Others find the evidence regarding observed changes in temperature insufficient to allow a sound conclusion regarding the validity of that theory as of the historical volatility of climate variations. While the last 10,000 years have been abnormally placid as far as climate fluctuations go, evidence of prior climate changes show an Earth that is anything but placid, climatically.i Changes in precipitation trends are, potentially, a form of indirect evidence reflecting whether the Earth is currently experiencing climate change.i Changes in sea level & the extent of ice sheets, sea ice, & polar ice caps are still another form of indirect evidence reflecting whether the Earth is currently undergoing climate change.
Sudden climate changes in the recent geological record
96% (2)
http: //www. esd. ornl. gov/ projects/ qen/ transit. html
31/7/1998

Sudden climate changes in the recent geological record

i All the evidence indicates that most long-term climate change occurs in sudden jumps rather than incremental changes.i Evidence of climate instability during the Eemian  i Overall, the combined sources of evidence suggest that at least one cold & dry event caused a change in circulation patterns in the North Atlantic, a several-degree decline in Atlantic surface temperatures, & on land opened up the west European forests to give a mixture of steppe & trees near the middle of the Eemian, about 122 ka.i Both of these have been attributed to specific pathogen attacks (...), but with the evidence from the Eemian it may now be worth considering these declines in terms of climate deterioration, or at least its effect on the spread of epidemics (A. Parker pers.i For this reason its ?always desirable to have sources of evidence from other regions before invoking a broad, dramatic climate shift.i This is further evidence that if & when the next climate shift occurs, it won't be a gradual century-on-century change but rather a sudden step-function that will begin suddenly & occur over a decade or 2.i its ?still unclear how the climate on a regional or even global scale can change as rapidly as present evidence suggests.i As evidence of such a broader link to global climate, over recent years changes in the monsoon-belt climates of Africa & Asia have also been observed to occur in association with decadal-scale phases of weaker north Atlantic circulation (e.i Broecker notes the evidence for large changes in the water vapour content of the atmosphere in terms of changes in the 18O content of tropical high Andean ice cores (Thompson et al.i Another source of evidence seems to underline the potential importance of sudden climate changes in the coming centuries & millennia: computer modelling studies of the (...) north Atlantic deepwater formation system suggest that its ?indeed sensitive to quite small changes in freshwater runoff from the adjacent continents, whether from river fluxes or meltwater (.,i
- Prometheus: Author: Pielke Jr., R. Archives
96% (3)
http: //sciencepolicy. colorado. edu/ prometheus/ archives/ author_ pielke_ jr_ r/ index. html
unknown date

- Prometheus: Author: Pielke Jr., R. Archives

- Prometheus: Climate Change Archives
96% (4)
http: //sciencepolicy. colorado. edu/ prometheus/ archives/ climate_ change/ index. html
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- Prometheus: Climate Change Archives

Rapid Climate Change
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http: //www. aip. org/ history/ climate/ rapid. htm
unknown date

Rapid Climate Change

i But in the 1950s, a few scientists found evidence that some changes in the past had taken only a few 1000 years.i
i A variety of historical evidence hinted that the climate shift had been world-wide.i
In 1968, they reported evidence for a rapid shift around 10,500 years ago, & by "rapid" they meant a change in the mix of tree species within less than a century (...).i
As abrupt changes became more credible, scientists noticed them in still more kinds of evidence.i
i Other evidence, especially oxygen isotopes in shells from deep-sea cores that reflected conditions in the entire North Atlantic, showed changes only over several 1000 years.
Nevertheless, as pieces of evidence accumulated, a growing number of scientists found it plausible that the climate over large regions, if not the entire world, had sometimes changed markedly in a 1000 years or even less.i
i A variety of other evidence for abrupt climate changes was accumulating, & some began to entertain the notion of such change on a global scale.
An altogether different type of evidence for rapid change came from improved observations of Arctic & Antarctic regions.i
Over the decades, many scientists who looked at tree rings, varves, ice layers, & so forth had held evidence of rapid climate shifts before their eyes.i
i Broecker & Donk (1970); Ruddiman & McIntyre too found evidence in deep-sea cores of faunal change (...).i
SUDDEN CLIMATE CHANGE THROUGH HUMAN HISTORY:
95% (6)
http: //dieoff. org/ page127. htm
13/4/2001

SUDDEN CLIMATE CHANGE THROUGH HUMAN HISTORY:

its ?still unclear how the climate on a regional or even global scale can change as rapidly as present evidence suggests. i its ?not known what delay was present in the correlated climate changes between the north Atlantic region & Antarctica, but it is generally thought that other (...) climate mechanisms, eg? greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, linked these 2 far-flung regions & produced rather more closely synchronized changes.  i As evidence of such a broader link to global climate, over recent years changes in the monsoon-belt climates of Africa & Asia have also been observed to occur in association with decadal-scale phases of weaker north Atlantic circulation.i In addition to this relatively direct effect of deepwater on North Atlantic & Antarctic climate, other subtle effects on global climate would be expected to result from a sudden change in North Atlantic circulation, or indeed they may themselves trigger a change in the North Atlantic circulation by their effects on atmospheric processes.i C on average, but due to amplification of this change by various factors within the climate system eg? the water vapor content, the resulting change in global climate could have been more than 2 deg.C   Another, possibly neglected, factor in rapid regional or global climate changes may be the changes in the albedo of the land surface that result from changes in vegetation or algal cover on desert & polar desert surfaces. i Other smaller changes are observed in the detailed Greenland ice cap record, but its ?important to note that not all the rapid changes observed in the Greenland ice cap correspond to large climate changes elsewhere. For this reason its ?always desirable to have sources of evidence from other regions before invoking a broad, dramatic climate shift.  i This is further evidence that if & when the next climate shift occurs, it won't be a gradual century-on-century change but rather a sudden step-function that will begin suddenly & occur over a decade or 2.  i Another source of evidence seems to underline the potential importance of sudden climate changes in the coming centuries & millennia: computer modeling studies of the (...) north Atlantic deepwater formation system suggest that its ?indeed sensitive to quite small changes in freshwater runoff from the adjacent continents, whether from river fluxes or meltwater. i
The evidence for climate change
95% (7)
http: //www. atmos. washington. edu/ ~philip/ SS/ Overview/ node1. html
24/3/1999

The evidence for climate change

The evidence for climate change Philip MoteMarch 26, 1999
3rd, increasing the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere will change the climate. From these premises, it follows that global climate change is already underway & will almost certainly continue indefinitely: for at least 100 years. This was, in essence, the conclusion of a comprehensive international study on climate change by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, or IPCC. In its 1995 report the IPCC said for the 1st time that ``The balance of evidence suggests a discernible human influence on global climate.'' Even the few scientists who dispute the evidence that humans are changing climate agree with points (1) & (2).i Is climate change a hoax? Another explanation for this discrepancy is not that models are wrong about the whole issue of climate change but that they are wrong about the connection between the surface & the upper atmosphere.i The overwhelming evidence, then, supports the view that climate is changing: the Earth is warming.i
Evidence for Climate Change
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http: //www. enviropedia. org. uk/ Climate_ Change/ Evidence. php
unknown date

Evidence for Climate Change

UBC Botanical Garden Weblog: Climate Change
95% (9)
http: //www. ubcbotanicalgarden. org/ weblog/ cat_ climate_ change. php
unknown date

UBC Botanical Garden Weblog: Climate Change

Study finds climate change evidence in the far north - Faculty of Science - University of Alberta
95% (10)
http: //www. science. ualberta. ca/ nav02. cfm? nav02= 34059& nav01= 11471
4/10/2005

Study finds climate change evidence in the far north - Faculty of Science - University of Alberta

Summary for Policymakers: The Science of Climate Change - IPCC Working Group I
95% (11)
http: //www. ipcc. ch/ pub/ sarsum1. htm
12/7/2001

Summary for Policymakers: The Science of Climate Change - IPCC Working Group I

Bibliography: Discovery of Global Warming
95% (12)
http: //www. aip. org/ history/ climate/ bib. htm
unknown date

Bibliography: Discovery of Global Warming

Global Warming/Climate Change Home Page
95% (13)
http: //www. countercurrents. org/ climatechange. htm
4/10/2005

Global Warming/Climate Change Home Page

i Climate change threatens the survival of thousands of species - a threat unparalleled since the last ice age,...,000 years ago   Hurricane Katrina has spurred debate about global warming worldwide with some environmentalists sniping at President George W. Bush for pulling out of the main U.N. plan for braking climate change  i 2 of the leading contenders to contest the next US presidential election have delivered an urgent warning to the United States on global warming, saying the evidence of climate change has become too stark to ignore & human activity is a major cause  i The British government is drawing up secret plans to create a new generation of nuclear power stations as the centrepiece of the Government's drive to combat climate change   Scientists have issued a fresh warning about the effect of climate change on Antarctica, saying that more than 200 coastal glaciers are in retreat as of higher temperatures  i New measurements from the world's oceans, announced Thur, give the most compelling evidence yet that man-made global warming is under way & hint at a more dramatic & sudden climate change in the future  i Evidence is growing that global warming is already starting to disrupt the world's delicately-balanced climate system, & the damage will reverberate for generations  i Appearing before a committee of senior MPs, Mr Blair said the evidence was now overwhelming that climate change was the single biggest long-term problem facing the country, & conceded the world was nowhere near finding a mechanism to cut carbon dioxide emissions by the government's target of 60% by 2050  i On Climate Change & Social Change By Doyle Canning  i
UBC Botanical Garden Weblog: Anecdotal Evidence of Climate Change
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http: //www. ubcbotanicalgarden. org/ weblog/ 000359. php
unknown date

UBC Botanical Garden Weblog: Anecdotal Evidence of Climate Change

Home / Resources & Writings / Weblog / Climate Change / Anecdotal Evidence of Climate Change  

Anecdotal Evidence of Climate Change

cgi/224 Listed below are links to weblogs that reference 'Anecdotal Evidence of Climate Change' from UBC Botanical Garden Weblog.   Botanical Art Botanical Resources Botanists Climate Change Herbaria Invasive Plants Novel Uses of Plants Other Botanical Gardens Plant Conservation Plant Discoveries Plant Diseases & Pests Plant Explorers Plant Legal News & Issues Plant Relationships Plants in the Landscape Plants, Food. ...  
Evidence for Climate Change
94% (15)
http: //geography. otago. ac. nz/ Courses/ 283_ 389/ Resources/ palaeo/ Evidence. html
9/9/2002

Evidence for Climate Change

Major Climate Change Occurred 5,200 Years Ago: Evidence Suggests That History Could Repeat Itself
94% (16)
http: //researchnews. osu. edu/ archive/ 5200event. htm
16/12/2004

Major Climate Change Occurred 5,200 Years Ago: Evidence Suggests That History Could Repeat Itself

i Himalyan Ice Cores Reveal Climate Warming, Catastrophic Drought , (9/8/00) Oldest Ice Core From The Tropics Recovered, New Ice Age Evidence , (...) i
MAJOR CLIMATE CHANGE OCCURRED 5,200 YEARS AGO: EVIDENCE SUGGESTS THAT HISTORY COULD REPEAT ITSELF
i From the mountains of data drawn by analyzing countless ice cores, & a meticulous review of sometimes obscure historic records, Thompson & his research team at Ohio State University are convinced that the global climate has changed dramatically.  i
i its ?this huge solar energy oscillation that Thompson believes may have triggered the climate change he sees in all those records.
i It also points to similar changes occurring in today’s climate as well,” he said.   The impact of a climate change of that magnitude on a modern world would be tremendous, he said. 70 % of the population lives in the world’s tropics & major climate changes would directly impact most of them.  i “The evidence is clear that a major climate change is underway.”  
Anthropogenic Climate Change
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http: //www. clivar. org/ publications/ other_ pubs/ iplan/ brochure/ acc. htm
29/11/2002

Anthropogenic Climate Change

i The 2nd Assessment Report (SAR) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concluded that:  
  • the balance of evidence suggests a discernible human influence on global climate.
i Attribution of the causes of climate change, eg?, requires the prediction of how specific forcing mechanisms might affect climate.i Specifically, through this project on Climate Change Prediction, CLIVAR can improve the prediction of climate change by encouraging:  
  • research to reduce the uncertainty in climate change, particularly by fostering collaboration among global climate modellers & scientists researching the detailed processes of water vapour & cloud feedbacks;
i The IPCC 2nd Assessment Report on climate change noted that although few would argue that completely unambiguous detection & attribution of climate change had already occurred, the "balance of evidence suggests a discernible human influence on global climate". Studies published since the Report have continued to present evidence of a significant change in global climate, & evidence that this change is due, at least in part, to human activities.i Detection of climate change is the process of demonstrating that an observed variation in climate is highly unusual in a statistical sense. Detection of climate change requires demonstrating that the observed change is larger than would be expected to occur by natural internal fluctuations.i i i i
01-006 (Climate Change on Mars)
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http: //www. brown. edu/ Administration/ News_ Bureau/ 2001- 02/ 01- 006. html
25/7/2001

01-006 (Climate Change on Mars)

Evidence of icy region & recent climate change observed on Mars Evidence of water ice has been detected on Mars in a location that indicates the planet’s climate has changed relatively recently – during the last 100,000 years, according to Brown University geologist John Mustard. PROVIDENCE, R.I. — New images of the surface of Mars provide the 1st direct evidence that the climate of Mars changed during the last 100,000 years, more? recently than the hundreds of millions of years scientists had previously thought, according to Brown University geologist John Mustard. The high-resolution images show evidence of water ice closer to the equator than had previously been observed.   Due to climate change, it now appears the icy region moved from the planet’s poles to nearer its equator, & has now retreated to the poles, the most recent of probably many such cycles, Mustard said.   “While we have always thought the climate of Mars has changed over time, this is direct evidence for change. & that change fits with the theory of periodic climate change, similar to the change that causes the ice ages on Earth,” Mustard said.  
Climate Change: The Evidence Mounts Up
94% (19)
http: //www. usgcrp. gov/ usgcrp/ documents/ mmnature. html
21/12/2004

Climate Change: The Evidence Mounts Up

Climate Change: The Evidence Mounts Up Michael C. MacCracken, Director Office of the US Global Change Research Program Nature , Aug 24, 1995, Vol. Our present climate is unusually warm, & the pattern of warming over the past century strongly suggests an anthropogenic influence from greenhouse gas & sulphate aerosols. That was the message emerging from a week-long symposium examining climate variability over the past 1,000 years,..., analyses of natural records & model results ("Climate Variability & Forcing Over the Past Millennium", XXI General Assembly of the International Union..,.,.,-.). precise measurement of the vertical profile of air temperature in boreholes drilled up to a few 1000 metres deep indicate how the near-surface ground temperature has changed over the past few decades, over the past one or 2 centuries, & since the early part of this millennium (H. N. Pollack, Univ. Ice-core records provide information about volcanic eruptions, specifically the amount of sulphate aerosol injected (...) & the cooling that it induced,..., Univ.i Although there is evidence that the seasonal cycle is also shifting towards earlier winters (...), there was considerable dispute about how certain we could be that greenhouse gas increases were accelerating the shift that is itself due to changes in the Earth's orbital elements. Several investigators (...) reported statistical linkages between climate fluctuations & variations in solar irradiance, but the evidence that variations in the Sun's energy output can be large enough to cause the changes will be at best circumstantial until a plausible...i Interestingly, the change in the Earth's orbit since 6,000 years ago had a radiative influence of similar character, & the modelled & observed result of the change is a reduction of the summer monsoon & the aridification of much of the Middle East & northern Africa (...).
US Climate Change Science Program / US Global Change Research Program, Suite 250, 1717 Pennsylvania Ave, NW, Washington, DC 20006.
PM speech on climate change
94% (20)
http: //www. number- 10. gov. uk/ output/ Page6333. asp
unknown date

PM speech on climate change

PM Speech on Climate Change

The PM? called climate change the world's greatest environmental challenge in a speech in London tonight.   "Our effect on the environment, & in particular on climate change, is large & growing; he said."   But tonight I want to concentrate on what I believe to be the world's greatest environmental challenge: climate change.  i Just as science & technology has given us the evidence to measure the danger of climate change, so it can help us find safety from it.i The scientific evidence of global warming & climate change: UK leadership in environmental science  i & amongst our particular strengths are the environmental sciences, lead by the world-renowned Hadley & Tyndall centres for climate change research.  i In short, we need to develop the new green industrial revolution that develops the new technologies that can confront & overcome the challenge of climate change; & that above all can show us not that we can avoid changing our behaviour but we can change it in a way that is environmentally sustainable.  i
Human Contribution to Climate Change Remains Questionable
94% (21)
http: //www. sepp. org/ scirsrch/ EOS1999. html
unknown date

Human Contribution to Climate Change Remains Questionable

i The most widely quoted attempt to address climate changes of the past & to speculate about the future is the series of reports produced by the IPCC, the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.i The 2nd scientific assessment, published in 1996, no longer made this claim; instead, it found it necessary to introduce a previously overlooked factor, human-caused atmospheric sulfate aerosols, to reach the conclusion that "the balance of evidence suggests there is a discernible human influence on global climate" [IPCC, 1996, p.i Yet we have increasing amounts proxy data from tree rings, ocean sediments, ice cores, & other evidence that tells us about climate in the distant past.  i Evidence is now forthcoming that UV-caused variations of the ozone layer or changes in solar particulate emissions (...) could (...) influence atmospheric circulation or cloudiness - which in turn can cause significant climate changes [...].i There is evidence also for winter warming, but not yet for the expected warming at high latitudes predicted by the climate models.i My essay concludes otherwise: The observational evidence described above suggests that any warming from the growth of greenhouse gases is likely to be minor, difficult to detect above the natural fluctuations of the climate, & therefore inconsequential.i The IPCC arrived at the ambiguous conclusion that "the balance of evidence suggests there is a discernible human influence on global climate," based on "fingerprints" in the climate record, i.i IPCC WGI, Climate Change 1995: The Science of Climate Change, (...), Karl, T. R., Kukla, G., Razuvayev, V. N., Changrey, M. J., Quayle, R. G., Heim Jr., R. R., Easterling, D. R., & C. B. Fu, Global warming: Evidence for asymmetric diurnal temperature change, Geophys.i
The Environmental Literacy Council - Abrupt Climate Change
94% (22)
http: //www. enviroliteracy. org/ article. php/ 1146. html
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The Environmental Literacy Council - Abrupt Climate Change

"Climate change - there is no need for concern". Going against the flow of popular opinion.
94% (23)
http: //www. scienceinafrica. co. za/ 2004/ april/ climate. htm
12/4/2004

"Climate change - there is no need for concern". Going against the flow of popular opinion.

A scientist has gone against the flow of global opinion on the detrimental effects of climate change. Prof Alexander explains his view on climate change below. There is no evidence to support the view that climate change could cause appreciable environmental damage or increase the frequency & magnitude of floods & droughts in South Africa within the foreseeable future.i The results of his study were published in 1948 in a 160-page Irrigation Department memoir titled An investigation into evidence bearing on recent climatic changes over southern Africa. He discounted many of the theories that had been advanced for climate changes.i It shows, however, that if we take South Africa as a whole there is little evidence of any change. There is still no concrete evidence of large-scale adverse effects of climate change on the environment in South Africa.i More researchers have spent more money on climate change research than in any other research activity.i Practitioners who would have to implement any measures to counter the undesirable effects, are waiting for solid evidence of changes taking place before reacting to them.i
News@UofT -- Study reveals climate change in Western Canada -- November 27, 2002
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http: //www. news. utoronto. ca/ bin3/ 021127a. asp
unknown date

News@UofT -- Study reveals climate change in Western Canada -- November 27, 2002

i 27, 2002e -- A new study of snow accumulation on Canada's highest mountain provides strong evidence that significant climate change has occurred in Western Canada over the past 150 years.   28th issue of Nature , examines climate change over the past 300 years & provides evidence that both surface & atmospheric temperatures have risen in Western Canada since the middle of the 19th century.i i Current theories & models demand that both higher surface temperatures & atmospheric warming must exist for there to be evidence of climate change due to an increase in greenhouse gases, & Moore says his team's study provides this evidence.  i We're seeing evidence that both of these climate modes have been intensifying," says Moore. "This is evidence that the atmosphere in the region has warmed up, & that it's doing it through an intensification of some natural modes of climate variability."   If this is a manifestation of regional climate change, Moore warns that these intensified modes may affect regional winter weather patterns. " The finding promises to intensify the debate over whether humans are responsible for such climate change, says Moore. Previous research has shown that levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide-a major greenhouse gas linked to climate change-also began to rise in Western Canada around 1850, due partly to the Industrial Revolution & land clearing for farming.   In the present day, Moore says, the atmospheric warming findings refute the argument that climate change is not related to human activities & highlight the critical need to take action to reduce global warming. "i
StudyWorks! Online : Increasing Evidence for Human Linked Climate ChangeIncreasing Evidence for Human Linked Climate Change
94% (25)
http: //www. studyworksonline. com/ cda/ content/ article/ 0, ,NAV4- 43_ SAR1227, 00. shtml
unknown date

StudyWorks! Online : Increasing Evidence for Human Linked Climate ChangeIncreasing Evidence for Human Linked Climate Change

The Discovery of Rapid Climate Change - Physics Today
94% (26)
http: //www. physicstoday. org/ vol- 56/ iss- 8/ p30. html
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The Discovery of Rapid Climate Change - Physics Today

Past Cycles: Ice Age Speculations
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http: //www. aip. org/ history/ climate/ cycles. htm
unknown date

Past Cycles: Ice Age Speculations

i This Ice Age stood as evidence of a prodigious climate change.
i The study of ancient climates (...) had turned out to be invaluable for identifying strata as an aid to oil exploration.
i But his results turned out to tell less about the causes of human evolution than about the causes of climate change.i
i At a conference on climate change held in Boulder, Colorado in 1965, Broecker announced that "The Milankovitch hypothesis can no longer be considered just an interesting curiosity."i
i Now that they were beginning to turn their attention from the past to the future, the most natural meaning to attach to "climate change" was the next swing into cold.
(43) Science magazine reported in 1978 that the evidence for the Milankovitch theory was now "convincing," & the theory "has recently gained widespread acceptance as a factor" in climate change.
The prominent 100,000-year cycle (...) had dominated climate change only during the most recent 1000000 years.i
i New evidence gave a particularly crucial role to changes in CO 2 & other greenhouse gases.i
RELATED: HomeSimple Models of ClimateThe Carbon Dioxide Greenhouse EffectChanging Sun, Changing Climate Supplement: Temperatures from Fossil Shellsi
Simple Models of Climate
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http: //www. aip. org/ history/ climate/ simple. htm
unknown date

Simple Models of Climate

i As evidence, the atmosphere had not changed — or at least not radically — over the past half-1000000 years.i
i He left aside the huge quantities of heat carried from the tropics to the poles by atmospheric movements & ocean currents, which also might well change when the climate changed.
i (27) Perhaps changes of geography were all that geologists needed to explain the major climate changes in the Earth's history.
These changes would be mostly regional, not global, but many experts thought of climate changes as mostly local affairs in any case.
In collaboration with another meteorologist, Wladimir Köppen, Wegener worked through the geological evidence of radical climate change.i
From then on, everyone who worked on climate change took into account possible changes in albedo due to ice & snow.i
Writers on climate, he had said, each pushed their own individual theory, & biased the evidence in their own favor. "
i Without such a model for the present state of climate, so much the worse for understanding climate change — any discussion "is necessarily conjectural & inconclusive."
i The approach was also a natural extension of traditional climatology, with its piles of statistics & its idea of climate change as a simple question of changed weather patterns.
i
James M. Inhofe - U.S. Senator - Oklahoma
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http: //inhofe. senate. gov/ pressreleases/ climateupdate. htm
unknown date

James M. Inhofe - U.S. Senator - Oklahoma

Abrubt Climate Change
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http: //216. 239. 59. 104/ search? q= cache: n4GlSs- 7yZMJ: dels. nas. edu/ abr_ clim/ evidence. shtml+ &hl= en& ie= UTF- 8
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Abrubt Climate Change

edu/abr_clim/evidence.i
Abrupt Climate Change: Inevitable Surprises: Report Brief (PDF) Full Report
Home > Evidence of Abrupt Climate Change   Researchers 1st became intrigued by abrupt climate change when they discovered striking evidence of large, abrupt, & widespread changes preserved in paleoclimatic archives - the history of Earth's climate recorded in tree rings, ice cores, sediments, & other sources. With such techniques, researchers have discovered repeated instances of large & abrupt climate changes over the last 100,000 years during the slide into & climb out of the most recent ice age - local warmings as great as 28°F (...) occurred repeatedly, sometimes in the mere span of a decade.   Some of the best known & most well studied widespread abrupt climate changes started & ended the Younger Dryas cold interval, a near global event that began abruptly about 12,800 years ago & ended even more suddenly about 11,600 years ago (...). Climate records show that much of the northern hemisphere was affected by extraordinary cold, dry, windy conditions; dust & other wind-blown materials were more abundant in Greenland by a factor of 3 to 7, & methane concentrations were lower indicating loss of wetland areas, among other evidence. The 110,000-year-long ice-core records from central Greenland, & many other climate records, indicate that the Younger Dryas was one in a long string of abrupt climate changes.   More recently, less dramatic though still rapid climate changes have continued to occur.i
Nature shows alarming evidence for climate change
94% (31)
http: //www. iucn. org/ info_ and_ news/ press/ climatechange. html
18/7/2001

Nature shows alarming evidence for climate change

British Energy - The theory & evidence of climate change
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http: //www. british- energy. com/ pagetemplate. php? pid= 183
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British Energy - The theory & evidence of climate change

Climate Change Information Sheet 8
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http: //unfccc. int/ essential_ background/ background_ publications_ htmlpdf/ climate_ change_ information_ kit/ items/ 285. php
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Climate Change Information Sheet 8

What's New, US Global Change Research Program
94% (34)
http: //www. usgcrp. gov/ usgcrp/ new. htm
3/10/2005

What's New, US Global Change Research Program

i i i CCSP, NRC Agree to Create Review Committee for Advising, Evaluating Climate Research Activities, press release (...) from the U.S. Climate Changes Science Program (CCSP).i i i
i i Thinking small in a time when everything was big has helped researchers from Queensland University of Technology (QUT) & Queensland Museum to unearth new evidence that climate change, instead of humans, was responsible for wiping out Australian giant marsupials or megafauna 40,000 years ago.
For long term plans, see chapter on Land Use / Land Cover Change of the Strategic Plan for the Climate Change Science Program (2003) posted on CCSP web site
For long term plans, see chapter on Human Contributions & Responses to Environmental Change of the Strategic Plan for the Climate Change Science Program (2003) posted on CCSP web site
Stakeholders Workshop, on the U.S. Climate Change Science Program's "Synthesis & Assessment" Product 4.5 (...) .i i i
For long term plans, see chapter on Climate Variability & Change of the Strategic Plan for the Climate Change Science Program (2003) posted on CCSP web site
i
i Report (...) from the the International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD), in cooperation with the UN? Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Climate Change Secretariat.
US Climate Change Science Program / US Global Change Research Program, Suite 250, 1717 Pennsylvania Ave, NW, Washington, DC 20006.
Abrubt Climate Change
94% (35)
http: //dels. nas. edu/ abr_ clim/ evidence. shtml
unknown date

Abrubt Climate Change

Coordinating Committee on Global Change Climate Research Committee
Home > Evidence of Abrupt Climate Change   Researchers 1st became intrigued by abrupt climate change when they discovered striking evidence of large, abrupt, & widespread changes preserved in paleoclimatic archives - the history of Earth's climate recorded in tree rings, ice cores, sediments, & other sources. With such techniques, researchers have discovered repeated instances of large & abrupt climate changes over the last 100,000 years during the slide into & climb out of the most recent ice age - local warmings as great as 28°F (...) occurred repeatedly, sometimes in the mere span of a decade.   Some of the best known & most well studied widespread abrupt climate changes started & ended the Younger Dryas cold interval, a near global event that began abruptly about 12,800 years ago & ended even more suddenly about 11,600 years ago (...). Climate records show that much of the northern hemisphere was affected by extraordinary cold, dry, windy conditions; dust & other wind-blown materials were more abundant in Greenland by a factor of 3 to 7, & methane concentrations were lower indicating loss of wetland areas, among other evidence. The 110,000-year-long ice-core records from central Greenland, & many other climate records, indicate that the Younger Dryas was one in a long string of abrupt climate changes.   More recently, less dramatic though still rapid climate changes have continued to occur.i
Puget Sound Clean Air Agency - Global climate change
94% (36)
http: //www. pscleanair. org/ specprog/ globclim/
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Puget Sound Clean Air Agency - Global climate change

i We are fortunate to be one of many organizations in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States that is investing in a climate change program. As we develop our climate change program, we will provide updates on this site, so check back with us.     What is climate change?   This excessive heat not only warms our atmosphere but also changes our climate. http://www.epa.gov/globalwarming/climate/index.html   Scientific evidence for climate change   Scientific evidence for climate change has developed significantly over the past several decades. Recently, 2 groups of scientists completed comprehensive reviews of the scientific literature; one group is the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) & the other is the U.S. Global Change Research Program.   Both assessments found that human activities are likely to contribute to global warming & that our climate is already changing as a result.i i i The University of Washington Climate Impacts Group studies potential impacts of climate change on the Pacific Northwest.i i i
Climate change: UNEP.Net, the Environment Network
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http: //climatechange. unep. net/ index. cfm? issue= climate_ causes
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Climate change: UNEP.Net, the Environment Network

Climate change home
Browse climate change publications from UNEP & other major international organisations
UNEP.Net > Climate change > Causes & evidence What factors have led to climate change?i Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis , Contribution of Working Group I to the 3rd Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The IPCC's Working Group I is responsible for addressing the scientific aspects of the climate system & climate change. This report discusses observations of current climate changes & trends, reconstructs past changes & trends, & presents projections of future climate change.i This paper gives a brief description of natural & man-made forces behind climate change & outlines climate variations in the past, together with a brief synopsis of the likely future impacts of anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases.
Climate Science » Additional Evidence as to Why Land-Use/Land-Cover Change is a First-Order Climate Forcing
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http: //climatesci. atmos. colostate. edu/ ?p= 52
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Climate Science » Additional Evidence as to Why Land-Use/Land-Cover Change is a First-Order Climate Forcing

Additional Evidence as to Why Land-Use/Land-Cover Change is a 1st-Order Climate Forcing
Filed under: Climate Change Forcings — Roger Pielke Sr. @ 3:33 pm A Sept 13, 2005 NASA Press release entitled “Tropical Deforestation Affects Rainfall in the U.S. & Around the Globe” reports on recent research work led by Roni Avissar of Duke University that has provided further evidence of the importance of land-use/land-cover change as a 1st-order climate forcing.i As reported in that publication with respect to the global climate implications of land-use/land-cover change,  i It’s definitely true that historically, the emphasis in global climate change research has been on other climate forcings-greenhouses gases, solar variability, aerosols-& that the role of land cover has been neglected. So far, what research has been done on the global-scale influence of land cover change on climate seems to suggest it plays a minor role.i What we experience are the changes in the climate in the place where we live, & those changes might be large.i Climate change is about more than a change in global temperature,’ he says. ‘i
NCDC: Global Warming
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http: //www. ncdc. noaa. gov/ oa/ climate/ globalwarming. html
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NCDC: Global Warming

Ocean Currents and Climate
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http: //www. aip. org/ history/ climate/ oceans. htm
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Ocean Currents and Climate

Those who sought explanations for climate change included sea changes in their long list of possible causes, & some made this the linchpin.
From the outset, the scientists who planned the IGY believed that the role of the oceans in climate change was something they should gather data on, if only for the benefit of future researchers.i In sum, putting climate change & oceanography together would generate important questions & fine opportunities for research.
i These oscillations provided some useful insights for the study of longer-term climate change, & a good workout for computer modelers, but they aren't covered in this essay.)  
i (19) At a conference held in Boulder, Colorado in 1965, where climate specialists put together for the 1st time a variety of evidence & ideas about how the climate system could lurch into a new state, speculations about modes of ocean circulation came to the fore.
i A bit more convincing was a 1983 report, using the geochemistry of isotopes in fossils, with complex evidence pointing to "a dramatic change in ocean circulation" in the last glacial period.
i The plankton population depended on the sea surface temperature, & still more on nutrients brought in by rivers, by wind-borne dust, & by the upwelling of ocean currents — all of which could change as climate changed.i
i The exact sequence of cause & effect was obscure, but there was evidence of a link to massive surges of the North American ice sheet & changes in the thermohaline circulation.i
i (67*) Until scientists understood such major effects, & constructed better models, & stopped interrupting one another with surprising new evidence & ideas, the ocean circulation would remain one of the biggest uncertainties in the equation of climate change.
i
Climate Changes Played Role In Early Human Evolution
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http: //unisci. com/ stories/ 20011/ 0123011. htm
2/2/2001

Climate Changes Played Role In Early Human Evolution

Defenders of Wildlife - Global Warming CLIMATE CHANGE, ECOSYSTEMS AND WILDLIFE
94% (42)
http: //www. defenders. org/ wildlife/ globalwarming/ wildlife. html
5/2/2003

Defenders of Wildlife - Global Warming CLIMATE CHANGE, ECOSYSTEMS AND WILDLIFE

Royal Society | Science news | Royal Society news stories | News
94% (43)
http: //www. royalsoc. ac. uk/ news. asp? year= &id= 3226
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Royal Society | Science news | Royal Society news stories | News

Worldwatch Institute: Questions and Answers about Global Warming, Abrupt Climate Change, and The Day After Tomorrow
94% (44)
http: //www. worldwatch. org/ features/ climate/ questionsanswers/
unknown date

Worldwatch Institute: Questions and Answers about Global Warming, Abrupt Climate Change, and The Day After Tomorrow

Online Feature: Climate Change: Questions & Answers about Global Warming, Abrupt Climate Change, & The Day After Tomorrow Instead, abrupt climate change will have the role of shocking moviegoers in the upcoming Hollywood film, The Day After Tomorrow, which opens on May 28 in the United States.  i Worldwatch has assembled this fact sheet to explain what climate change & global warming are, how these trends affect people & nature, & what people can do to slow warming & climate change.
The Science of Global Warming & Climate Change   How Does Climate Change Affect ME?  
i Climate change refers to changes in seasonal temperature, precipitation, wind, & humidity for a given area.i A. While most climate change generally happens slowly over time, there is evidence that episodes of rapid cooling have occurred in the past, with temperatures falling dramatically over periods of 10 to 20 years.i A. There is no scientific evidence that abrupt climate change can happen in a matter of hours or days.i The Administration claimed this put too heavy a burden on the U.S. economy, arguing that there was too much uncertainty around climate change to make the economic changes that would be necessary for such emissions reductions.i
Climate.org - Science of Climate Change
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http: //www. climate. org/ topics/ climate/ index. shtml
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Climate.org - Science of Climate Change

CRS Report: IB89005 - Global Climate Change - NLE
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http: //www. ncseonline. org/ NLE/ CRSreports/ Climate/ clim- 2. cfm? & CFID= 19032422& amp; CFTOKEN= 33375269
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CRS Report: IB89005 - Global Climate Change - NLE

i i At the Nov 2000 conference of parties to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP-6), held in the Hague, Netherlands, international climate change negotiations on implementing the Kyoto Protocol collapsed due to major differences among the developed country parties, especially the EU? & the United States.i For more information on the science of global climate change, visit the CRS Electronic Briefing Book: Global Climate Change web site.  i Evidence of natural variability of climate is large enough that even the record-setting warmth at the end of the 20 th century doesn't allow a vast majority of knowledgeable scientists to state beyond a reasonable doubt that weather extremes experienced over the past 2 decades are attributable to "global warming," at least at the present.i & that] the balance of evidence, from changes in global mean surface air temperature & from changes in geographical, seasonal, & vertical patterns of atmospheric temperature, suggests a discernible human influence on global climate."i Also, on June 6, 2001, a Committee on the Science of Climate Change of the U.S. National Research Council (NRC) released a report, Climate Change Science: An Analysis of Some Key Questions , stating that global warming could well have serious societal & ecological impacts by the end of this century. Commissioned by the Bush White House & prepared by 11 of the nation's leading climate scientists, the report summarized the current state of knowledge on climate change & confirmed that the climatic changes observed during the past several decades were most likely due to human activities.i This included passage of a National Climate Program Act of 1978 (P.L. 95-367). These activities are discussed in CRS Report RL30522, Global Climate Change: A Survey of Scientific Research & Policy Reports , also in which early aspects of the scientific debate & a chronology of U.S. government involvement in climate change policy are featured.  i On the other hand, many reputable scientists feel that the scientific evidence about climate change has been compelling enough for world leaders to accept the likelihood of climate change.i On Nov 10, 2000, the USGCRP released its assessment of the potential consequences of climate change impacts on the United States; the results, the National Assessment Synthesis team called for action to address potential significant regional climate changes in the United States resulting from global climate change.i
StudyWorks! Online : Environmental NewsEnvironmental News
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http: //www. studyworksonline. com/ cda/ newsandinfo/ main/ 0, ,NAV4- 43, 00. html
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StudyWorks! Online : Environmental NewsEnvironmental News

StudyWorks! Online : Did the Sun Trigger Mayan Collapse?Did the Sun Trigger Mayan Collapse?
94% (48)
http: //www. studyworksonline. com/ cda/ content/ article/ 0, ,NAV4- 43_ SAR1228, 00. shtml
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StudyWorks! Online : Did the Sun Trigger Mayan Collapse?Did the Sun Trigger Mayan Collapse?

Ocean & Climate Change Institute - Abrupt Climate Change
94% (49)
http: //www. whoi. edu/ institutes/ occi/ currenttopics/ abruptclimate_ joyce_ keigwin. html
15/12/2004

Ocean & Climate Change Institute - Abrupt Climate Change

U.S. Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources
94% (50)
http: //energy. senate. gov/ public/ index. cfm? FuseAction= Hearings. Testimony& Hearing_ ID= 1484& Witness_ ID= 4228
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U.S. Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources


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